July 2005

Copyright © 2005 World Expertise LLC – All rights reserved

A periodic electronic newsletter for engineering education leaders,

edited by Russel C. Jones, Ph.D., P.E., and Bethany S. Oberst, Ph.D.


1 - International developments

 University presidents urge support of academic freedom

                G8 leaders promise more on climate change

            UK organization proposes more open access to research findings

                Iranian election puts research plans in doubt

            Ukrainian government attacks corruption in university admissions

            The $25-billion question on Africa

            Africa acknowledges it must help itself

                Skirmish over leadership of Taiwanese university

            South Korea hones its digital game


2 - US developments

       National Academy report urges engineering education reform

      US seeks to keep Internet role

      Supreme Court Justice O’Connor to retire

      Roberts nominated to replace Justice O’Connor 

      Is US losing the innovation arms race?

      NSF settles parts of its disputes with US university

      Research universities urged to retain their individuality

      New restrictions on foreign researchers proposed by Pentagon

      Compromise achieved on US accreditation processes 

      NSF reports on 2003 academic research funding, activity


3 - Distance education, technology

      US universities offering more on-line courses

      Full electrical engineering degree to be offered on-line

      Internet2 and National LambdaRail plan to merge

      Revival of the nuclear industry?

      Berkeley and Yahoo partner in new research lab

      The Web hits the stacks


4 - Students, faculty, education

      US secondary school students stagnate in academic achievement

      Shortage of engineers?

      Engineers’ image differs across the globe

      Tuition for illegal immigrants

      Officials fight entrance exam at Seoul National


5 – Employment

      Measuring outsourcing

      Outsourcing begins to fall from favor

            Engineering salaries rise again

            IBM catalogs workers to cut costs

            Retooling the knowledge factory

            Off-shored to North Dakota?

            High level programming skills still marketable in US


6 – Journals

            International Journal of Engineering Education

            Journal of Engineering Education

            Issues in Science and Technology


7 – Meeting

            IAUP Triennial Conference




1 - International developments

University presidents urge support of academic freedom – Sixteen university presidents from eight countries around the world have signed a statement in support of academic freedom and invited other presidents to join them, according to an article by Devin Varsalona in The Chronicle of Higher Education.  The statement grew out of the Global Colloquium of University Presidents organized in January by five US institutions and Kofi Annan of the United Nations.  While the presidents did not confer with their governments before signing, they are hoping that the document will be of help in countries where academic freedom comes under attack. (See

G8 leaders promise more on climate change – Led by the UK government, the recent meeting of G8 leaders edged toward a stronger effort to control greenhouse gasses. According to an article by Eliot Marshall in the July 15th Science, the heads of the eight leading industrial nations promised to boost energy efficient technology, adopt low CO2-emitting energy sources, and back research collaborations. But they endorsed no new targets for reducing greenhouse gasses. The plan’s vagueness angered green groups that want action. (See  

UK organization proposes more open access to research findings – The Research Councils UK has issued a draft policy which calls for more open access to sponsored research results than does the US National Institutes of Health, writes Aisha Labi in The Chronicle of Higher Education. RCUK’s policy, which would take effect in October of this year, tells researchers to put into open repositories any Research Councils sponsored work at the time of publication or as soon as publishing agreements will allow, but no longer than 6 months after publication. The proposed policy will cover research in engineering and science as well as humanities, social sciences and the arts. (See

Iranian election puts research plans in doubt – The election of a hard-liner in Iran’s recent presidential runoff election has led researchers there to fear curtailment of foreign collaboration, accelerated brain drain, and a shift toward more applied projects. According to an article by Richard Stone in the July 1st Science, it is only recently that Iranian science has enjoyed a widespread renaissance, including a three-fold increase in foreign collaborations in the last four years. But momentum is in danger of being lost, according to some observers. Others caution against rushing to judgment, saying that the situation will not become clear until the new government appoints its science minister and when a high council for science and technology, chaired by the president, meets in the fall. (See

Ukrainian government attacks corruption in university admissions – In an effort to stem widespread bribery, Viktor Yuchenko, president of Ukraine, has asked university personnel in his country to recognize that society will judge his new administration by the fairness of university admissions this year, writes Bryon Macwilliams in The Chronicle of Higher Education.  To insure honesty next year the country will require a standardized test as part of university admissions.  In taking these steps Ukraine is following the model of Russia, which is now using a Unified State Exam in an effort to reduce the $300 million in bribes thought to be paid last year  to influence admissions.  (See

The $25-billion question on Africa – Britain’s Prime Minister, Tony Blair, chairman of the G8 summit, put Africa at the top of its agenda. His Commission on Africa has called for another $25-billion of aid to the continent each year for the next three to five years, according to a special report in the July 2nd The Economist. That move has been reinforced by a UN report on the Millennium Project, which calls for a doubling of aid worldwide in order to meet the Millennium Development Goals of halving poverty and hunger, arresting disease and environmental degradation, helping newborn babies survive infancy and educating them in childhood.  At the present rate, Africa south of the Sahara will meet none of those goals by the target date of 2015. In many of the countries in that region income per head has yet to regain levels reached in the 1960’s, and life expectancy is in decline. According to the UN report, tropical Africa is in a poverty trap – too poor to grow. (See

Africa acknowledges it must help itself – While the G8 leaders were meeting in Scotland, their African counterparts who run most of the world’s poorest countries gathered in Libya. According to an article in the July 9th The Economist, the African leaders understand that they are being expected to shoulder more of the burden for curing the continent’s ills. The meeting was called by the African Union, an organization revamped in 2002 out of the decrepit old Organization for African Unity. The new organization and its New Partnership for Africa’s Development (Nepad) are facing their first big tests of credibility in taking responsibility to feed the starving and stop the continent’s civil wars. This new spirit of African ownership matches the latest trend in the development world, whereby donor countries and multilateral organizations devolve as much of the responsibility as possible for anti-poverty and health programs to the recipient countries themselves, rather than micro-managing them as in the past. (See   

Skirmish over leadership of Taiwanese university A US-educated Taiwanese electrical engineer has been appointed president of the prestigious National Taiwan University, amid criticism from faculty who supported another candidate.  The appointment is particularly contentious because Lee Si-chen, besides being a former dean of academic affairs at the university, is also known for his interest in psychic phenomena, reports Paul Mooney in The Chronicle of Higher Education.  The principles of academic freedom are cited in his defense.  (See

South Korea hones its digital game – The Seoul government is spending billions of dollars, and working closely with private industry, to get ahead of the global digital pack. According to an article by Moon Ihlwan in the July 18th Business Week, a government led campaign in South Korea is aimed at ensuring that the country’s bustling info-tech and telecom industries maintain their leading role as  innovators. One area being pursued is radio-frequency identification technology (RFID), which would allow various industries to manage logistics and distribution through tags embedded in virtually all products. Another is a broadband convergence network which would integrate wired and wireless telecom and broadcasting allowing users to send voice, text, images and video all through the same pipe. (See 


2 - US developments

National Academy report urges engineering education reform – “Educating the Engineer of 2020: Adapting Engineering Education to the New Century” ( is the title of a major new report from the US National Academy of Engineering.  The report recommends that colleges of engineering make important changes in the way that they educate future engineers, including the following: consider the master’s degree as the professional degree; increase education in the humanities and foreign-languages; integrate two year and four year degree programs to better serve the 40% of bachelor’s degree holders who begin their studies in community colleges; insure that engineering faculty have industry experience; offer more continuing education to employed engineers; and provide the public with more information about engineering and engineering education to de-mythicize and make engineering more attractive to prospective students.  This report was written by Jeffrey Brainard in The Chronicle of Higher Education. (See

US seeks to keep Internet role – Amid appeals from several countries for a new international governing body for the Internet, the Bush administration has called for the US to retain – and perhaps enhance – its long-standing role in Internet management. According to a note by Victoria Shannon in the July 4th New York Times, the US Commerce Department has said that the US “intends to preserve the security and stability” of the technical underpinnings of the Internet and will “maintain its historic role in authorizing changes or modifications” to the master file of Internet domain names.  A 1998 memorandum of understanding had indicated that the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers would become independent of the US Commerce Department in September 2006. Several countries and the European Union have proposed that an international body take over from ICANN. (See

Supreme Court Justice O’Connor to retire – US Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor recently announced her retirement, causing The Chronicle of Higher Education to assign reporter Peter Schmidt to review her work in education-related cases.  Justice O’Connor was a conservative appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1981. Over the course of her appointment she was seen as a hard-to-predict swing-voter in cases which had a major impact on higher education, including Grutter v. Bollinger, in which she supported the right of the University of Michigan to use race-conscious admissions policies.  In her writing of the majority opinion in that 5 to 4 decision, she declared that the benefits to be derived from a diverse student body provided sufficient justification for considering race or ethnicity in university admissions, but she also pointed out that in coming years that justification may be more difficult to claim.  (See

Roberts nominated to replace Justice O’Connor  – Moving quickly in response to the retirement of Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, President Bush announced his nomination of John G. Roberts, Jr., as her replacement.  Judge Roberts, currently serving on the US Court of Appeals, has represented various facets of higher education in his previous private legal practice.  Consequently, the umbrella group representing US higher education in Washington, the American Council on Education, has expressed through its spokesperson its strong endorsement of Judge Roberts’s nomination.  Roberts is a graduate of Harvard Law School and practiced law with the Washington, DC, firm of Hogan & Hartson, reports Jeffrey Selingo in The Chronicle of Higher Education.  (See

Is US losing the innovation arms race? – It is a long held tenet of entrepreneurialism in the US that no matter what global economic changes the world can dish out, the country can innovate its way out of them. But according to an article by Michael Fitzgerald in the June 5th CIO Insight, the twin forces of outsourcing and globalization are working to unseat the US from its lofty position as the world’s only economic superpower. Also contributing to worries are cuts in government spending for basic R&D, and fears about the nation’s faltering education system. Today more than 68% of all domestic R&D is funded by the private sector, a dramatic shift from 20 years ago when the federal government funded the majority of it. While the US federal funding of research in the physical sciences as a percentage of GDP has declined steadily over the past 30 years, China doubled its spending on R&D in the past ten years, from 0.6 to 1.2 percent of GDP. (See 

NSF settles parts of its disputes with US university – Florida A&M University has agreed to pay $1.5 million to settle a dispute over misspending of a National Science Foundation grant, reports Paul Fain in The Chronicle of Higher Education.   The NSF was investigating the use of $5.3 million given in 1997 to establish a university Center for Research Excellence in Science and Technology. University officials claim that all the money was spent appropriately, but no documentation could be provided in support of that claim.  (See  In further developments, the NSF has unfrozen existing grants to Florida A&M based on the school’s improvement of financial procedures, but has not yet agreed to take action on pending grant proposals, wanting to conduct a further review in August, writes Paul Fain in The Chronicle of Higher Education.  (See

Research universities urged to retain their individuality – A Harvard economics professor told members of the US National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) that research universities are risking their individual identity in their race to achieve high rankings, writes Paul Fain in The Chronicle of Higher Education.  Speaker David J. Collins claims that many of the decisions being made now are resulting in loss of loyalty in faculty and staff, management problems and loss of control.  He recommended that institutions make hard decisions and set boundaries to establish and maintain their identities and individuality.  (See

New restrictions of foreign researchers proposed by Pentagon – The US Defense Department has drafted new regulations that would have an important impact on university research.  The Pentagon proposes that foreign researchers working on contracts wear badges and work only in segregated laboratory areas where they could not have access to sensitive technologies.  Robert B. Hardy from the Council on Government Relations in Washington, DC, says that if these regulations are implemented the spontaneity of research would be lost.  Earlier this year the US Commerce Department announced similar restrictions affecting a broader range of research, but the Pentagon rules are more strict.  Under both sets of regulations, universities would have to obtain special licenses to  use foreign researchers in projects, writes Jeffrey Brainard in The Chronicle of Higher Education.  (See

Compromise achieved on US accreditation processes  – The latest revisions to the US Higher Education reauthorization bill affecting accreditation are largely acceptable now that they have been modified from earlier versions, writes Burton Bollag in The Chronicle of Higher Education.  The new version would continue the practice of making mandatory the publication of information on the denial or withdrawal of an institution’s accreditation, but would permit the institution to publish a statement as well.  Also new is the provision that accreditation groups must publish the names of all members of on-site teams, but with a one-year lag and without specifying which person visited which institution.  The United Negro College Fund, however, is still not satisfied with the due-process provisions that they have sought to change. (See

NSF reports on 2003 academic research funding, activity – The US National Science Foundation issued its report on research spending for 2003, and noted that federal funds for academic research increased that year by 13.1%.  That growth, when combined with a 1.1% decrease in industry funding, resulted in the federal share of funding reaching almost 62%, a figure not seen since 1985.  Support for research from college and university budgets, along with state and local governments, also grew.  Total spending on academic research was $40.08 billion in 2003.  Also in the NSF report was information on institutional involvement in research, with universities such as Virginia Commonwealth and the University of Nebraska joining the list of the 100 most active institutions, and the New Mexico State University system and the University of Oklahoma system dropping out.  The institutions which ascended most rapidly in the ranking included Vanderbilt and the University of South Florida, while the University of Maryland at College Park and Georgetown dropped most rapidly.  Also of interest in this report is new information on research spending in areas outside of engineering and the sciences, points out reporter Jeffrey Brainard of The Chronicle of Higher Education.  (See


3 - Distance education, technology

US universities offering more on-line courses – There are indications that nonprofit institutions are beginning to compete effectively with for-profits in offering 100% on-line courses, writes Dan Carnevale in The Chronicle of Higher Education.  A report from Eduventures Inc. says that enrollment in courses taken entirely on-line doubled to one million between 2002 and 2004, with the rate of expansion in the for-profits beginning to slow down in comparison with the nonprofits.  Eduventures predicts that enrollment will expand by over a quarter million students in each of the next two years. (See

Full electrical engineering degree to be offered on-line – The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (USA) has given $300,000 to the State University of New York (SUNY) to create an on-line bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering.  SUNY Buffalo, Stony Brook and Binghamton are collaborating on this project, which builds upon the $4.5 million that the Sloan Foundation has provided SUNY for distance learning projects since 1994.  The electrical engineering program will be part of the larger SUNY Learning Network which has 100,000 on-line students studying for 94 degrees or certificates. (See

Internet2 and National LambdaRail plan to merge – The governing boards of two organizations which provide US higher education with high-speed computer networking – Internet2 and National LambdaRail – have accepted the recommendation of networking experts that the groups be combined.   The boards passed resolutions which did not specify the design of the new, combined organization, but instead asked each group of develop a plan for merging.  According to Vincent Kiernan reporting in The Chronicle of Higher Education, Internet2 and National LambdaRail are different enough that merger may be challenging. (See

Revival of the nuclear industry? Climate change is helping a revival of the nuclear industry, though its economics still look dodgy, according to a special report in the July 9th The Economist. The nuclear industry has suffered in many countries due to safety concerns and financial problems. In Asia, new capacity is being built or considered in China, India, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. China already has nine reactors, and is planning a further 30. Now western governments are increasingly looking anew at nuclear energy, primarily in response to political pressure about climate change. France’s parliament has recently approved a new nuclear plant, and Finland is currently building the first new power plant in the west in 10 years. (See  

Berkeley and Yahoo partner in new research lab – Yahoo Inc. and the University of California at Berkeley are new partners in the Yahoo Research Labs – Berkeley, writes Dan Carnevale in The Chronicle of Higher Education.  The lab is designed to enable graduate students and faculty to access the huge pool of Yahoo users to study their Web needs and develop new services to be offered by the company.  Ten people including a director have already been hired and the lab is scheduled to open in August. (See

The Web hits the stacks – There is a vast body of knowledge that Web browsers cannot find, hidden in books, according to an article by Stephen Wildstrom in the July 25th Business Week. Two factors combine to make such valuable and authoritative material inaccessible on the Web: the bulk of human knowledge represented in printed material is not in digital form, and much of it is still under copyright protection. But Yahoo and Google are leading the way in efforts to open this world of print and proprietary material to browsing. Services offered to date are limited – often providing only abstracts, and requiring paid subscriptions to obtain full articles – but efforts are underway to scan the contents of the world’s books and make them available online. This more ambitious approach is an outgrowth of the US National Science Foundation’s digital library initiative, which aims to put leading research collections online. (See


4 - Students, faculty, education

US secondary school students stagnate in academic achievement – The 2004 edition of the “National Assessment of Educational Progress” shows that the academic achievements of secondary school students in the US have not improved over the 3 years that the test has been administered, reports Anne K. Walters in The Chronicle of Higher Education.  Darvin M. Winick, chair of the governing board, pointed out that more students are taking more advanced math courses, but their scores are not improving. The good news is that the gap in achievement between white and minority students has closed, and academic achievement of younger students in both reading and math has improved. The goal is to increase students’ readiness for college and thus decrease the need for post-secondary remediation courses. (See

Shortage of engineers? – An article in the July Civil Engineering magazine by Jeff Brown indicates that civil engineers are in demand in the US, and that the disparity between the supply and market demand has employers scrambling to fill positions. Engineers specializing in water and environmental engineering are particularly in demand at this time, and the demand for civil engineers overall is projected to increase as the nation comes to terms with its crumbling infrastructure. Employers are particularly interested in hiring engineers who have skills beyond technical competency – including communication, project management, and leadership. (See   

Engineers’ image differs across the globe – Until the US can find a way to make engineering interesting to a large, diverse population of bright students it could be in danger of losing its position as a top global innovator, according to an article by Jane Bryne in the July Engineering Times. Eastern nations like China and India are producing more engineers each year and enjoying a technological boom, while engineering colleges in the US struggle to recruit students each year. According to the National Science Foundation, China produced 207,459 engineering graduates in 2000, while the US produced only 59,536. Engineering bachelor’s degrees constituted 40% of the degrees earned in China, but only 5% of those earned in the US. In China, scientists and engineers are more respected than in the US, and China’s political leadership comes almost exclusively from technical backgrounds and has a high regard for science. (See

Tuition for illegal immigrants – There is a brewing controversy in many US states about whether illegal immigrants should qualify for in-state tuition, according to an article by Jeff Chu in the July 11th Time. Some 50,000 to 65,000 illegal immigrants graduated from US high schools this spring, and many want to go on to college. But they can qualify for in-state tuition in only nine states, and they often cannot afford the much higher out-of-state tuition rates. Income from the higher tuition rates is not the issue – only 8000 undocumented immigrants out of a public college population of more than one million got reduced rates in Texas last year. The issue is more emotional – including parental concerns that expanded in-state rates will consume taxpayer dollars, and make it harder for the kids of regular citizens to get into top schools. Opponents also fear that extending one privilege would open the door to granting other benefits now reserved for legal residents. (See

Officials fight entrance exam at Seoul National – The South Korean government is fighting a decision by the Seoul National University to use essay tests as a main criterion for admissions, according to an article in the July 5th JoongAng Daily by Kim Man-joong and Ser Myo-ja. Critics say that the plan would be unfair to less affluent student who cannot afford private tutoring, which the new requirement would encourage. The school has planned the move to the new measure saying that high school records and standard aptitude tests do not adequately assess the abilities of students to master college level work. (See


5 – Employment

Measuring outsourcing – There is little hard evidence about the extent of international outsourcing and offshoring, despite widespread media attention, according to a recent OECD report. According to a note in the July 2nd  The Economist, the media has portrayed offshoring as a threat to millions of jobs in Europe and the US and as a threat to the security of sensitive data. Recently the McKinsey Global Institute published a report with some figures. Extrapolating from a study of eight industrial sectors, the Institute calculated that in 2003 there were 1.5-million service jobs outsourced abroad from developed countries. By 2008, it is reckoned that number will have risen to 4.1-million. To put those numbers in context, the report pointed out that an average of 4.6-million Americans started work with a new employer every month in the year to March 2005. Limits to the growth of offshoring are already appearing, including increased use of technology in developed countries to reduce any human interactions. And the supply of suitable labor in popular cities such as Prague and Hyderbad is running short. But in its bottom line, the OECD report estimates that close to 20% of total employment in the 15 pre-expansion EU countries, the US, Canada and Australia could be affected by the international sourcing of service activities. (See   

Outsourcing begins to fall from favor – The industrial trend toward outsourcing may be showing some signs of weakening, according to a new report by Deloitte Consulting. As reported in the July issue of Engineering Times, Deloitte’s study, “Calling a Change in the Outsourcing Market”, outsourcing is not delivering its expected value to large companies and some are returning operations “back home”. The study is based on personal interviews with 25 of the largest companies representing eight industry sectors. As part of its findings, the study reveals that 70% of the participants have had significant negative experiences with outsourcing projects, and are now exercising greater caution in approaching outsourcing. (See

Engineering salaries rise again – Wages in the US have grown only slightly, while China and India have seen double-digit increases, according to a note by Terry Costlow in the July IEEE Spectrum. The AAES Engineering Workforce Commission has reported that in 2004 US engineers in all disciplines saw an average 1.5% gain in compensation over the previous year, after inflation. But raises are highly selective, with many engineers getting nothing or a token raise, with the top performers getting 10 to 20%.  Engineers in Western Europe are seeing similar modest gains. Meanwhile engineers in low-wage countries such as China and India are enjoying double-digit salary increases. (See 

IBM catalogs workers to cut costs – Having developed extensive tools for supply-chain management of physical items, IBM is now preparing to apply similar methodologies for its biggest expense: people. According to an article in the July 15th-17th Asian Wall Street Journal by Charles Forele, IBM has begun an ambitious project to catalog employees and sort them into a finely woven glossary of technical skills. The program is an attempt to get a better handle on the cost of the company’s sprawling workforce in the face of fluctuating demands for labor. The theory is that personnel, like parts, can be optimally deployed – to maximize hours billed to a customer, thus bringing in more revenue. (See

Retooling the knowledge factory – German industry is going to its educational source for its high-tech future work force, according to an article by Carter Dougherty in the July 9th-10th International Herald Tribune. Senior executives from German industry are sitting on councils that oversee major universities, as education has become a matter of critical importance to the future of businesses in the country. In a world where rapidly growing rivals in Eastern Europe and Asia can fill manufacturing jobs more cheaply, Germany’s industrial leaders say the business of making things still has a future in their country. But they say that the educational system that turned Germany into an economic dynamo after WWII has to change if they are to keep ahead of low-cost competition. The country needs more graduates of the higher education system, and those graduates must be flexible lifetime learners. (See

Off-shored to North Dakota? – A new variation of outsourcing is appearing in the US, where a few small programming centers are being created in more out of the way parts of the country, offering employees the lifestyle advantages of more rural areas in return for lower wages.  It is too early to tell to what extent this experiment will succeed, but for now, companies such as CrossUSA in Watford City, North Dakota, are luring employees whose jobs have been shipped overseas or who just want a change.  Clients are told that these companies provide better service being in similar time zones and that the employees better understand the client’s needs, writes Adam Geller on June 26 in the on-line service of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. (See

High level programming skills still marketable in US – In a counterpoint to current US concerns about outsourcing of IT jobs, Steve Hamm writing for BusinessWeek’s July 25 – August 1 issue found that software writers with high level skills are still finding jobs.  The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that “computer and mathematical occupations” rose in the second quarter of 2005 by 7.5%. Reasons for this include that companies are still looking for skilled programmers with business knowledge and design competencies to work directly with clients on projects.  Routine programming skills are still a commodity, however, and subject to offshoring.  This puts pressure on both individuals and universities to promote acquisition of high-level competencies.  (See


6 – Journals

International Journal of Engineering Education – Engineering Ethics, an International Overview comprises the first part of vol. 21, no.3. Guest Editor Caroline Whitbeck of Case Western Reserve University has assembled six papers on how to inject ethics into an engineering curriculum, liability in engineering practice, values and human rights, and the role of various organizations in ethics. The second part of the issue contains eleven papers on other aspects of engineering education, including papers on student attitudes on teaching, self-assessed student learning outcomes, probability and statistics, and a virtual laboratory. (See

Journal of Engineering Education – The July 2005 issue of this ASEE journal includes eight papers on topics such as biosystems engineering, undergraduate research, cooperative education work assignments, peer evaluation, student design teams, engineering school persistence, on-line homework, and undergraduate student competitions. (See

Issues in Science and Technology – The Summer 2005 issue has a theme of nanotechnology, with four papers on the federal role, economic benefits, developing country interest, and environmental and health concerns. Additional papers in the issue cover games in education, military spending, global competitiveness, and the global water crisis. (See


7 – Meeting

IAUP Triennial Conference – The International Association of University Presidents conducted its triennial conference in Bangkok in mid-July. Keynote speaker Jane Goodall described her transition from chimpanzee researcher to global activist, and stated that universities are key to preparing students who want to make the earth a better place. Jose Ramos Horta, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate from East Timor, addressed unresolved issues in globalization and peace – indicating that the education system must prepare graduates better equipped to deal with them than current leaders are. And Columbia University President Lee Bollinger stressed that universities must align their internal activities with external realities. (See 




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